Pierre Gaviniès, Sonata in B minor op 1, 1761 violin-harpsichord-cello
Pierre Vachon, Sonata in D major op 1, 1760 violin-harpsichord-cello
Simon Leduc, Trio in G minor op 5, 1772 2 violins-cello
Romance de Gaviniès
Variations from Tarade, collection of the most beautiful and varied airs for two violins, 1775
Arrangement Matthieu Camilleri and Philippe Grisvard violin-harpsichord
Simon Leduc, Sonata in C minor op 4, 1771 violin-cello
Pierre Vachon, Trio in C major op 4, 1780 2 violins-cello-harpsichord
In the 17th century, the violin was an instrument reserved exclusively for the orchestra in France. The
The very first sonatas for violin around 1700 demonstrate the use of a technique that was quite modest compared to the Italian
modest technique compared to the Italian repertoire (Corelli for example).
However, in the space of only two generations, a flourishing school of violin playing emerged in the wake of Leclair, and during the second half of the 18th century it dominated Europe, so much so that the greatest virtuosos came to be forged in its mould (Viotti or Kreutzer at the end of the century).
This programme proposes to explore this 'sentimentalist' generation (1760-1780) through three rather contrasting personalities, well known and listed from a musicological point of view, but whose works are practically unknown and have never been recorded: Pierre Gaviniès, Simon Leduc and Pierre Vachon.
Pierre Gaviniès (1728-1800) is considered to be the father of the French violin school. All modern violinists work on his studies (the 24 mornings). He was the first violin teacher at the Paris Conservatoire when it was founded in 1795.
His first sonata opus shows the influence of Leclair, but also a more modern bowing technique reminiscent of Tartini. Sonata form is adopted almost systematically.
In addition to this first sonata, we offer a reconstruction of his famous romance.
The "Gaviniès romance" seems to have been a hit in France during the second eighteenth century. Legend has it that he composed it while in prison in the late 1750s for a matter of morality.
Several accounts of the time state that he often played this piece as an encore, a pretext for improvisation or variation.
There are many transcriptions of this piece in the amateur repertoire, which certainly belonged to the oral repertoire (versions with guitar, harp, violin duets etc.).
Philippe Grisvard and I propose to make an arrangement based on our knowledge of the variation tradition typical of this period.
Simon Leduc (1742-1777) was a pupil of Pierre Gaviniès and was to be his most faithful colleague until he joined the Concert Spirituel, where they shared the direction with Gossec (1773-1777).
His chamber music is delightful, refined, oscillating between a Mozartian charm, a clarity that he inherited from Gaviniès or Leclair, and pre-romantic outbursts, a sort of French Sturm und Drang.
He died very young, leaving a fairly small body of work. He was one of the personalities that the young Mozart met in Paris and Father Leopold praised his playing.
His Op 4 is no longer numbered, and the writing is so intelligent that the cello is sufficient. Indeed, the title of this opus no longer mentions the harpsichord as the instrument for the bass.
This is also the case for the trio op 5.
The form of the trio for two violins and cello seems to have been a very French genre, and one that is found in many publications of the time.
Pierre Vachon (1738-1803) has a sentimental style often bordering on extravagance. Unlike his two compatriots, he travelled and had an international career. While he also proved himself at the Concert Spirituel in the 1760s, he was in London around 1772 and in Berlin at the end of his life.
There is a very important stylistic evolution between the two works proposed here, which mark the boundaries of our period (1760-1780).
The first sonata with basso continuo is in many respects heir to Leclair's language, while deliberately seeking formal or harmonic provocation, the bizarre, with much humour and a touch of immaturity.
The charming final trio shows a much more confident style and a perfect integration of the Viennese style.
Matthieu Camilleri, violin
Clara Mühlethaler, violin (trios)
Philippe Grisvard, harpsichord
Keiko Gomi, cello